An abstract includes the following aspects of the content of the original document: subject, title, aim of the scientific paper; method and methodology of paper; scientific results; implementation area of the results; summary; additional information. The optimal sequence of the content aspects depends on the abstract purpose. Subject, topic, purpose of the scientific paper are specified in if they are not clear from the document title of. Method or methodology of the paper are advisable to be described if only they differ by the scientific novelty or represent the interest for the paper. Widely known methods are to be just mentioned. In abstracts of papers describing experimental research, indicate the sources of the data and the nature of their treatment. Research findings should be extremely accurate and informative. You should include the fundamental theoretical and experimental results, actual data, observed relationships and patterns. Preference will be given to new research and data with long-term significance, important discoveries, findings that contradict existing theories, as well as data that, according to the author, are of practical importance. Data limitations and reliability, as well as degree of validation should be indicated. The author specifies whether the numeric values are primary or secondary, the result of one observation or repeat tests. The author specifies whether the numeric values are primary or secondary, the result of one observation or repeat tests. Conclusions can be accompanied by recommendations, evaluations, suggestions, and hypotheses described in the article.


The text of the abstract must be short-spoken and clear, free from excessive parentheses.

The abstract begins with the phrase that formulates the core topic of the paper. Information contained in the title and the bibliography review of the article must not be repeated in the abstract.

Avoid the use of unnecessary introductory phrases (eg, “the author of the article considers”). Historical references, if they are not the main part of the document, description of earlier research and common statements are not given in the abstract. The text of the abstract should be written with the use of syntax constructions typical of scientific and technical documentation; complex grammatical structures should be avoided.

The abstract text should use standardized terminology. The consistency of terminology within the abstract is obligatory. Abbreviations and signs, except common ones, are used only in exceptional cases or it is necessary to give their interpretation and definition when they are used in the abstract for the first time.


The abstract title is usually the same as the title of the reviewed document in the case where the abstract is composed in the language of origin.