Nutrition Factor and Evolutionary Genetic Development of Intestinal Microflora: Importance for Maintaining Immunity and Health
Valeriy A. Chereshnev, Valeriy M. Poznyakovskiy
The article considers the microbiota of modern people and its changes in the course of evolution under the influence of external and internal environment factors. The researchers explain the diversity loss and lack of beneficial microorganisms by the lack of carbohydrates available to the microflora (CAM) in the man diet, including dietary fiber fermented into short chain fatty acids (SCFA) - the main source of energy and intestinal microflora metabolism regulator. The authors demonstrated the intestinal microflora connection with other organs and systems of the human body, including the immune and nervous systems, and determined its significance in the occurrence and development of common diseases. Special attention is paid to the analysis of pro-, pre-, metabiotics and their metabolites, which have individual differences in the metabolic processes of a healthy and sick organism. The mechanisms and ways of implementing these functions depend on specific microorganism strains, that determines the prospects for creating and applying new biotechnological products with directed functional properties. A man noted antagonistic contradictions between own and produced strains. The article demonstrates that the microorganism genome is able to evolve in the struggle for survival, responding to changing nutritional conditions by delegating a huge number of genes to the human genome, indicating the need for nutrient-metabolic support of the microbiome. The issues of “aging” microbiota and the possibility of its support, as well as the transfer of beneficial bacteria from the donor to the recipient’s intestines, carrying out the transfer of positive physiological characteristics are interesting. The researchers discussed decoding process prospects of sequencing the genes that make up the human genome, the mechanisms of forming a personal microbiome for understanding the diseases pathogenesis and developing highly effective therapies. The most effective way to restore and preserve healthy microflora is a scientifically based diet with the additional inclusion of specialized products, the active principles of which are the producers of various bacteria.
microbiome; microbiota; pro-, pre-, metabiotics and their metabolites; indigenous microflora; immunity ensuring
For citation: Valeriy A. Chereshnev, Valeriy M. Poznyakovskiy. Nutrition Factor and Evolutionary Genetic Development of Intestinal Microflora: Importance for Maintaining Immunity and Health. Индустрия питания|Food Industry. 2020. Т. 5, No. 3. Pp. 5–16. DOI: 10.29141/2500- 1922-2020-5-3-1